Cyclical path of civilization development Research methodology – empirical analysis.

Cyclical path of civilization development Research methodology – empirical analysis.

Cyclical path of civilization development Research methodology – empirical analysis.

In the process of buying and selling, he enters into relationships with commercial banks, non-financial firms and the public. By buying or selling government securities, the National Bank is able to increase or decrease reserves in the banking system and thus affect the money supply.

Changing the level of the minimum reserve ratio – The National Bank can affect the credit capabilities of commercial banks by changing the minimum required reserve ratio. An increase in the reserve ratio will reduce the money supply and increase the interest rate. Money is becoming “expensive”, which means restrictive policies. Conversely, by lowering the reserve ratio, the National Bank pursues an expansionist policy, ie a policy of “cheap” money. Changing the reserve norm is a rather powerful method, and the practical application of this method requires caution.

Determining the level of the discount rate. The discount rate is the interest rate at which the National Bank provides loans to commercial banks.

Note that the increase in money supply leads to an increase in investment, GDP, employment, income, aggregate demand, which, in turn, will further increase economic activity. This effect may be preferable under low employment conditions.

Effective monetary policy considerationis an integral part of anti-inflationary policy because an erroneous, unjustified increase in the money supply causes inflation.

In order to reduce inflation, the state can pursue anti-inflationary policies, which have several directions. One of the most important tasks of the anti-inflation strategy is to meet anti-inflationary expectations, primarily adaptive. Another integral component of an anti-inflation strategy is a stable monetary policy. Its feature is the introduction of strict limits on annual growth of money supply. This indicator is determined by the long-term dynamics of real production and the level of inflation that the government considers acceptable and undertakes to control.

The results of monetary policy are significantly influenced by the processes taking place in the world economy.

For any economy, along with maintaining internal balance, the problem of achieving balance between exports and imports is extremely important.

literature

Budagovska S., Kilievich O. and others. “Microeconomics and macroeconomics”. K .: “Fundamentals”. 1998. p. 321-341. Komisaruk MP “Macroeconomics: a course of lectures”. Kolomyia – 1999. p. 200-223. Macconel, Bru. “Economics: principles, problems and policies: In 2 vols.: Per. With English II ed. – M.: Respublika, 1992. Pavlovsky M.” Macroeconomics of the transition period “. K.:” Technology “. 1999. Savchenko A. and others Macroeconomics K: Lybid 1999 pp 194-219.

07/29/2011

The cyclical path of civilization in the philosophy of history of Arnold Toynbee. Abstract

Research methodology – empirical analysis. The unit of measurement is civilization

At the turn of the 21st century, humanity is increasingly faced with the question: where are we going, where are we now and what are the general prospects for the development of earthly civilization. The fantastic pace of development of new technologies and the prospects that open up thanks to them, the progressive “Westernization” of economic and political aspects of life in many countries allow many to speculate about the rapid approach of humanity to the ideals of Western democracy. There are even words about the end of human history.

For example, the American historian Francis Fukuyama reacted to the reforms in the former Soviet Union: “It is possible that what we are seeing is not just the end of the Cold War or a period of postwar history, but the end of history as such : it means the end point of ideological the evolution of man and the transformation of Western liberal democracy into a universal, ultimate form of government. “

Using economic indicators, politicians and economists rank countries according to the degree of their “progressiveness”, completely dismissing such inalienable characteristics of human existence as morality, cultural identity, or determining their economic and political development. Everything that does not fit into the “Procrustean bed” of the mentality of the average European (or American) consumer is explained by the “savagery” of the peoples of the 3rd world, to whom, unfortunately, the light of Western culture has not yet reached.

But how can all the uniqueness and diversity of different cultures be reduced to two or three numerical indicators such as gross national product per capita? And in general, is it legitimate to compare different cultures with each other, to build them into any hierarchical structure according to the degree of approximation to a single ideal for all? Aren’t we too enthusiastic about accepting the phenomena inherent in individual cultures as the characteristics of all cultures?

Many thinkers consider it wrong to describe history as a linear progressive movement towards a single goal, in which all nations go in the same direction, overtaking or lagging behind each other. On the contrary, history for them is the development of separate social entities more or less interacting with each other, where the death of some coexists with the birth of others. “Instead of a monotonous picture of world history … I see the phenomenon of many powerful cultures, with primordial force coming from the depths of their state, … and each has its own idea, its own passions, its own life, desires and feelings, and finally own death “.

So wrote the German philosopher of the early twentieth century Oswald Spengler. In theories of this type, the continuous translational movement of humanity as a whole is replaced by the cyclical development of individual local civilizations. Arnold Toynbee, a twentieth-century English historian, is a thinker with a similar view of history. His theory of cyclical civilizations will be covered in this essay.

The cyclical path of civilization

Research methodology – empirical analysis. Before we start talking about Toynbee’s theory, it is worth saying a few words about his research methodology. As Toynbee himself writes, describing some differences between his theory of cycles and Spengler’s theory of civilizations, “if the German a priori method has failed, it is worth trying what can be achieved with English empiricism.” Throughout his major work, Understanding History, Toynbee follows his own methodology. Any concept introduced by him is not given a priori, but arises out of necessity from many selected examples.

Many of the entities introduced by Toynbee do not have clear wording, but become clear only after studying a large number of historical examples. For example, one of the most important concepts in the theory of Toynbee Challenge-Response is not given formally, but is based on a large number of specific examples.

This style of expression has both advantages and disadvantages. On the one hand, the great factual material is a good reinforcement of the postulates of Toynbee’s theory. On the other hand, the vagueness of the wording allows for ambiguity of interpretation and often impairs the understanding of some provisions of his theory.

The unit of measurement is civilization. Before talking about the theory of cycles of civilizations, it is necessary to understand what Toynbee means by the term “civilization” or, in other words, what is the “unit of measurement” of historical existence. Based on the fact that any country, political union, etc. should not be considered in themselves, but based on the “historical context” Toynbee comes to the following conclusion about the “atom on which to focus”:

civilizations “represent … societies with a wider length both in space and time than nation-states or states united in any other political alliances”; it is civilizations that must be considered; civilizations are compared with each other; none of the civilizations encompasses all mankind; heredity in the development of civilizations is much smaller than the heredity between the phases of development of one civilization.

Analyzing history, Toynbee singles out twenty-one civilizations that ever existed on Earth (this figure varies throughout the book). At the moment there are five left (excluding two relics):

Western Christian; Orthodox Christian; Islamic; Far East; Hindu.

There are family relations between some of these civilizations, for example, Western Christian and Orthodox Christian, which are in a “sister” relationship with each other, originate from the Hellenic civilization. Civilizations, moreover, interact with each other and can influence each other. This view is fundamentally contrary to Spengler’s view that civilizations are self-contained entities that are incapable of understanding each other and do not arise from each other.

However, Toynbee also deeply denies the concept of “unity of civilization”, explaining it, like personal narrative speech topics Spengler, hypertrophied sense of Eurocentrism of modern historians: “Western historians … believe that now the unification of the world on the economic basis of the West is more or less complete secondly, they confuse unification with unity, thus exaggerating the role of the situation that has historically developed recently and does not allow us to talk about the creation of a single civilization, much less to identify it with Western society. “

literature

Arnold Toynbee’s “Understanding History.” Moscow “Progress” 1990. Arnold Toynbee “Civilization before the Court of History”. St. Petersburg. “Juventus” “Progress” “Culture” 1995. Oswald Spengler “Western Europe: Essays on the morphology of world history. Vol. 1. Image and reality.” Minsk “Potpourri” 1998.

07/29/2011

Basic methods and forms of competition. Abstract

Competition is an objective economic law of developed commodity production, the action of which for commodity producers is an external coercive force to increase labor productivity at their enterprises, expand production, accelerate STP, introduce new forms of production organization and wage systems, etc.

Other economic laws also take the form of coercive forces of competition, as a result of which competition is an important part of its economic mechanism.

At the lower stage of the development of the capitalist mode of production (beginning of the 16th – end of the 19th century), free competition prevailed between the owners of small enterprises that produced goods for an unknown market, in the form of intra-industry and intersectoral competition.

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